By Mohammed M. Alani
This paintings opens with an obtainable advent to desktop networks, delivering normal definitions of accepted phrases in networking. this is often by way of an in depth description of the OSI version, together with the techniques of connection-oriented and connectionless communications. The textual content rigorously elaborates the categorical capabilities of every layer, in addition to what's anticipated of protocols working at each one layer. subsequent, the adventure of a unmarried packet, from resource to vacation spot, is defined intimately. the ultimate bankruptcy is dedicated to the TCP/IP version, starting with a dialogue of IP protocols and the aiding ARP, RARP and In ARP protocols. The paintings additionally discusses the TCP and UDP protocols working on the shipping layer and the appliance layer protocols HTTP, DNS, FTP, TFTP, SMTP, POP3 and Telnet. very important evidence and definitions are highlighted in grey bins discovered through the text.
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Additional info for Guide to OSI and TCP/IP Models
The main difference happens in the operation field. The RARP protocol uses the values 3 and 4 for request and reply respectively as indicated in IETF RCF 903 . The main use of the RARP protocol is to provide IP addresses to the hosts who do not know their own IP address. The host sends a RARP request to the gateway, and the gateway looks into its ARP cache for the IP address related to this host‘s hardware address, and when a match is found the IP address is sent to the host. 28 3 TCP/IP Model Fig.
According to the current FTP standard , FTP has gone through many evolution steps starting from IETF RFC 114 in 1971 and ending in the current IETF RFC 959. FTP uses two separate connections for control and data transfer. At the user login, the client host connects to the FTP server on port 21 to setup the control connection. After the setup of the control connection, FTP initiates another TCP connection to transfer the data using port 20. 5 Commonly used FTP commands Command Use USER PASS LIST RETR STOR Sends the username to the FTP server for authentication before the connection is setup Sends the password after the username to the FTP server to complete the authentication phase Request to display the files and folders contain the current active location.
The mode of transfer determines the type of encoding used when transferring the files. Despite the fact that a user can use FTP protocol directly from a browser, usually users use a FTP client program. This program provides the user with more controllability over the communication session. FTP provides the ability to protect the connection with a username and a password. This way, only authorized users can create communication sessions with servers. Most FTP servers can provide the ability to assign folders to users such that each user sees only the folder he or she is allowed to.